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Allegations Involving Manuscripts Under Editorial Consideration.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0188
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In the case of a manuscript under consideration that is not yet published in which fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism is suspected, the editor should ask the corresponding author for a written explanation. If an explanation is not provided or is unsatisfactory, the editor should contact the author’s institutional authority (ie, dean, director, ethical conduct/research integrity officer) or governmental agency with jurisdiction to investigate allegations of scientific misconduct to request an investigation. In all such communications with authors and institutional authorities, the editor should take care to maintain confidentiality and should follow the same procedures described in ...
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Allegations Involving Unresolved Questions of Scientific Misconduct.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0187
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Cases may arise in which an allegation requires the journal editor to have access to the data on which the manuscript or article in question was based. Following the recommendations of the ICMJE, JAMA’s authorship statement includes the following language for all authors: I agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved; and...
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Editorial Policy and Procedures for Detecting and Handling Allegations of Scientific Misconduct.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0184
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Detection of scientific misconduct in publishing has often been the result of the alertness of coworkers or other authors of the same manuscript and less commonly detected by editors, peer reviewers, or general readers. However, postpublication forensic statistical analysis and other replication techniques have begun to be used by peers and other experts to identify and expose scientific misconduct in published reports....
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Inappropriate Manipulation of Digital Images.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0183
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section
Image-processing software, such as Adobe Photoshop, has made it relatively easy for authors to manipulate images to highlight a specific outcome or feature by cropping; deleting items; adjusting color, brightness, or contrast; or cloning/copying images. These same applications can be used by journal staff to screen digital images for evidence of inappropriate manipulation and fraudulent manipulation....
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Misappropriation: Plagiarism and Breaches of Confidentiality.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0182
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Misappropriation in scientific publication includes plagiarism and breaches of confidentiality during the privileged review of a manuscript12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 20 (see 5.7.1, Confidentiality During Editorial Evaluation and Peer Review and After Publication). In plagiarism, an author documents or reports ideas, words, data, or graphics, whether published or unpublished, of another as his or her own without giving appropriate credit or attribution....
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Misrepresentation: Fabrication, Falsification, and Omission.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0181
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section
Fabrication, falsification, and omission are forms of misrepresentation in scientific publication. Fabrication includes stating or presenting a falsehood and making up data, results, or facts that do not exist. Falsification includes manipulation of materials or processes, changing data or results, or altering the graphic display of data or digital images in a manner that results in misrepresentation (...
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Retraction and Replacement for Articles With Pervasive Errors.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0186
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section
Retractions may also be used for articles that are seriously and pervasively flawed because of honest, inadvertent error that is not a result of fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism.28 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 However, retraction of an article because of serious and pervasive errors should be used cautiously. Indeed, Sox and Rennie...
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Retractions and Expressions of Concern.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.022.0185
Item type: 
section
After receiving confirmation from the author or authors and/or a report from the author’s institution or other agency indicating that fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism has occurred, the journal should promptly publish a retraction. Preferably this retraction will be a signed letter from the corresponding author and all coauthors. If none of the authors will agree to publish a signed retraction, the editor may request such a retraction from the investigating institution, or the editor may issue a retraction on behalf of the journal. In each case, the editor should inform the author(s) and institutional authority of the plan to publish a retraction. See ...
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Scientific Misconduct.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0005.021.0078
Item type: 
section
We should ignore whining about the supposedly awful pressures of “publish or perish” when we have little credible evidence on what motivates misconduct, nor on what motivates the conduct of honest, equally stressed colleagues. Laziness, desire for fame, greed, and an inability to distinguish right from wrong are just as likely to be at the root of the problem....

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