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Case-Control Studies.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0019.022.0015
Item type: 
section
Case-control studies , which are always retrospective, compare those who have had an outcome or event ( cases ) with those who have not ( controls ). Cases and controls are then evaluated for exposure to various risk factors and thus should not be selected on the basis of their exposure to the risk factors under investigation. Cases and controls generally are matched according to specific characteristics (eg, age, sex, duration of disease) to reduce ...

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