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Administration of Drugs.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0027
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section
When describing the administration of drugs, buccal, cutaneous, dermal, inhalational, intra-articular, intracardiac, intramuscular, intrathecal, intravenous, intraventricular, intravitreal, nasal, ocular, oral, otic, parenteral, rectal, subconjunctival, subcutaneous, sublingual, topical, transdermal, and vaginal are acceptable terms when these are the usual or intended routes of administration. Except for systemic chemotherapy, however, drugs are usually neither systemic nor local but are given for systemic or local effect....

Age and Sex Referents.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0028
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Use specific terms to refer to a person’s age. Neonates or newborns are persons from birth to 1 month of age. Infants are children aged 1 month to 1 year (12 months). Children are persons aged 1 to 12 years. Sometimes, children may be used more broadly to encompass persons from birth to 12 years of age. They may also be referred to as ...

Age.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0024
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section
Discrimination based on age (young or old) is ageism. Because terms like seniors, elderly, the aged, aging dependents, old-old, young-old, and similar "other-ing" terms connote a stereotype, avoid using them. Terms such as older persons, older people, older adults, older patients, older individuals, persons 65 years and older...

Anatomy.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0029
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section
Authors often err in referring to anatomical regions or structures as the “right heart,” “left chest,” “left neck,” and “right brain.” Generally, these terms can be corrected by inserting a phrase such as “part of the” or “side of the.” right side of the heart, right atrium, right ventricle...

Articles.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0032
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The article a is used before the aspirate h (eg, a historic occasion) and nonvocalic y (eg, a ubiquitous organism). Abbreviations and acronyms are preceded by a or an according to the sound following (eg, a UN resolution, an HMO plan) (see 13.8, Agencies, Organizations, Foundations, Funding Bodies, and Others and ...

Back-formations.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0025
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The transformation of a noun into a verb is a back-formation, often seen in technical as well as informal writing. Diagnose, for example, is a mid–19th-century back-formation, from diagnosis. Back-formations in use include dialyze (from dialysis) and anesthetize (from anesthesia). A back-formation that is not widely accepted is ...

Clock Referents.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0030
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Occasionally, reference to a locus of insertion, position, or attitude is given in terms of a clock-face orientation, as seen by the viewer (see 18.1.4, Numbers and Percentages, Use of Numerals, Measures of Time). Note: The terms clockwise and counterclockwise can also be confusing. The point of reference (eg, that of observer vs subject) should be specified if the usage is ambiguous....

Correct and Preferred Usage  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
eISBN: 
9780197507827
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190246556
The Correct and Preferred Usage chapter of the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style includes a large glossary of frequently misused or confused terms. In addition to this updated and ... More

Correct and Preferred Usage of Common Words and Phrases.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0022
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section
UPDATE: In chapter 11.1, Correct and Preferred Usage, the term mutations was edited to sequence variations in the entry for “classic, classical” to be consistent with style policy as explained in chapter 14.6.1.1.1. This change was made May 28, 2020 . Following simple rules for correct and preferred usage of common words and phrases is important in scientific communication because it increases clarity, provides consistency, and helps avoid miscommunication....

Correct and Preferred Usage.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0021
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section
Style, not least, adds beauty to the world. To a literate reader, a crisp sentence, an arresting metaphor, a witty aside, an elegant turn of phrase are among life’s greatest pleasures. . . . [T]his thoroughly impractical virtue of good writing is where the practical effort of mastering good writing must begin...

Expendable Words and Circumlocution.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0018
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Some words and phrases can usually be omitted without affecting meaning, and omitting them often improves the readability of a sentence: Quite, very, and rather are often overused and misused and can be deleted in many instances (see 11.1, Correct and Preferred Usage, Correct and Preferred Usage of Common Words and Phrases)....

Inclusive Language.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0033
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Any classification according to a singular identity polarizes people in a particular way, but if we take note of the fact that we have many different identities . . . we can see that the polarization of one can be resisted by a fuller picture. So knowledge and understanding are extremely important to fight against singular polarization....

Incomparable Words.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0019
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section
Some words are regarded as “absolute” adjectives, those not possessing a comparative or superlative form (eg, young, younger, youngest or loud, louder, loudest). Words considered incomparable that need no superlative or comparative modifier are listed below: Note: In general, superlatives should be avoided in scientific writing....

Jargon.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0026
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Many words have found their way into medical vocabularies with unusual meanings that are not recognized even by medical dictionaries. Such writings may be characterized as medical jargon or medical slang. When these words appear in medical manuscripts or in medical conversation, they are unintelligible to other scientists, particularly those of foreign countries; they are not translatable and are the mark of the careless and uncultured person....

Laboratory Values.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0031
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Usually, in reports of clinical or laboratory data, the substance per se is not reported; rather, a value is given that was obtained by measuring a substance or some function or constituent of it. For example, one does not report hemoglobin but hemoglobin level. Some other correct forms are as follows:...

Personal Pronouns.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0022
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section
Avoid sex-specific pronouns in cases in which sex specificity is irrelevant. Do not use common-gender “pronouns” (eg, “s/he,” “shem,” “shim”). Reword the sentence to use a singular or plural non–sex-specific pronoun, neutral noun equivalent, or change of voice; or use “he or she” (“him or her,” “his or her[s],” “they or their[s]”). The use of the “singular they” construction is permitted when rewriting would be awkward or unclear (...

Race/Ethnicity.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0023
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Race is defined as “a category of humankind that shares certain distinctive physical traits.”24 Ethnicity relates to “groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background.”24 Similar to gender, race and ethnicity are cultural constructs, but they can have biological implications. Caution must be used when the race concept is described in health-related research. Some have argued that the race concept should be abandoned, based on the scientific evidence that human races do not exist per se. Others argue for retaining the term ...

Redundant Words.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0017
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A redundancy is a term or phrase that unnecessarily repeats words or meanings. Below are some common redundancies that can usually be avoided (redundant words are italicized): Previous | Next
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Redundant, Expendable, and Incomparable Words and Phrases.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0023
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section
This parrot is no more. It has ceased to be. It’s expired and gone to meet its maker. This is a late parrot. It’s a stiff. Bereft of life, it rests in peace. If you hadn’t nailed it to the perch, it would be pushing up the daisies. It’s rung down the curtain and joined the choir invisible. This is an ex-parrot....

Sex/Gender.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0021
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section
Sex refers to the biological characteristics of males and females. Gender includes more than sex and serves as a cultural indicator of a person’s personal and social identity. An important consideration when referring to sex is the level of specificity required: specify sex when it is relevant. In research articles, sex/gender should be reported and defined, and how sex/gender was assessed should be described....

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