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Abbreviations.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0135
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section
Within the body of the table and in column and row headings, units of measure and numbers normally spelled out may be abbreviated for space considerations (see 13.12, Abbreviations, Units of Measure; 17.0, Units of Measure; and 18.0, Numbers and Percentages). However, spelled-out words should not be combined with abbreviations for units of measure. For example, “First Week” or “1st wk” or “Week 1” may be used as a column heading, but not “First wk.” Abbreviations or acronyms (but not abbreviations used to indicate units of measure) should be explained in a footnote (...

Boxes.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0153
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section
A textual table or box contains words, phrases, or sentences, often in list form. Boxes are used to emphasize key points, summarize information, and/or reduce the narrative text (Box 4.3-1). In this example, the box provides information in a list-type format, which allows for easier reading than the same content in prose form....

Components of Figures.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0145
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section
Clear display of data or information is the most important aspect of any figure. For figures that display quantitative information, data values may be represented by dots, lines, curves, area, length, or shading based on the type of graph used. The horizontal scale (x-axis) and the vertical scale (y-axis) indicate the values of the data plotted in a graph. In most graphs, values increase from left to right (on the x-axis) and from bottom to top (on the y-axis). Rarely, a third scale (secondary y-axis) may be relevant, also with values increasing from bottom ...

Consent for Identifiable Patients.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0150
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section
For photographs or videos in which an individual can be identified (by himself/herself or others), the author should obtain and submit a signed statement from the identifiable person that grants permission to publish the photograph. Previously used measures to attempt to conceal the identity of an individual in a photograph, such as placing black bars over the person’s eyes, are not effective and should not be used (...

Diagrams.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0141
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Flowcharts show the sequence of activities, processes, events, operations, or organization of a complex procedure or an interrelated system of components and sometimes function as visual summaries of a study. Flowcharts are useful to depict study protocol or interventions, to demonstrate participant recruitment and follow-up such as in a randomized clinical trial (CONSORT [Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials])...

Figures Reproduced or Adapted From Other Sources.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0148
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section
It is preferable to use original figures rather than those already published. When use of a previously published illustration, photograph, or other figure is necessary, written permission to reproduce it must be obtained from the copyright holder (usually the publisher). The original source should be acknowledged in the legend. If the original source in which the illustration has been published is included in the reference list, the reference may be cited in the legend, with the citation number for the reference corresponding to its first appearance in the text, tables, or figures (...

Figures.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.021.0066
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section
The term figure refers to any graphical display used to present information or data,4 including statistical graphs, maps, matrixes, algorithms, illustrations, digital images, photographs, and other clinical images. Figures may be used to clarify or explain methods, to present evidence and quantitative results, to highlight trends and associations or relationships among data, to clarify complex concepts, or to illustrate items or procedures. Figures should be accurate, clear, and concise. As with tables, the figure with its title and legend should be understandable without undue reference to the text....

Guidelines for Preparing and Submitting Figures.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0149
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section
The preferred format for submitting figures varies among scientific journals. Authors who submit figures with a scientific manuscript should consult the instructions for authors of the publication for specific requirements. For example, many journals require all files to be submitted through a web-based submission system. The JAMA Network journals provide detailed instructions to authors that cover, for example, image integrity, acceptable file formats, titles and legends, and labeling included within the figure (...

Guidelines for Preparing and Submitting Tables.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0138
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section
Authors submitting tables in a scientific article should consult the publication’s instructions for authors for specific requirements and preferences regarding table format. Although details about preferred table construction vary among journals, several general guidelines apply. Each table should be created using the table functionality in the word processing software or spreadsheet program and inserted in the electronic manuscript file. Reduced type should not be used. For most journals, if a table is too large to be contained on 1 manuscript page, the table should be continued on another page with a “continued” line after the title on the subsequent page. Alternatively, if the table is large or exceedingly complex, the author should consider separating the data into 2 or more simpler tables. Tables should not be submitted on oversized paper, as a graphic image, or as photographic prints....

Illustrations.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0143
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Illustrations may explain physiologic mechanisms, describe clinical maneuvers and surgical techniques, and provide orientation to medical imaging. Complex interactions often are easier to convey and understand in an illustration than in text or tables (Figure 4.2-30). Previous | Next

Maps.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0142
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section
Maps are useful to demonstrate relationships or trends that involve location and distance or to illustrate study sampling methods (Figure 4.2-26). Maps may be used to demonstrate geographic relationships (eg, spread of a disease). Choropleth maps depict quantitative data (eg, relative frequencies by county, state, country, continent, province, or region), with differences in numerical data, such as rates, shown by shading or colors. Authors should verify map details to avoid misspelled or incorrect names, deleted features, distorted geographic relationships, misplaced or missing cities, and misplaced boundaries....

Multimedia.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0151
Item type: 
section
Some journals allow supporting multimedia to accompany an article for online-only publication, such as video, audio, or interactive files. For example, the JAMA Network journals include such content when it is important to readers’ understanding of a report, to illustrate a point made or demonstrate a process described in an article, to aid in learning, or to provide a useful summary in another format. Detailed guidelines on acceptable video and audio file formats, optimal video quality, and filming and copyright considerations are provided in online instructions for authors....

Nontabular Material.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.021.0067
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section
Nontabular material does not contain cells of individual data. Usually it is set off from the text by a box, rules, shading, or other elements. Sometimes the box or sidebar is cited in the text (following the citation rules for tables) and other times it is not. Any references that appear in nontabular material should also appear in the reference list and be numbered in order of their appearance (...

Numbers.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0136
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section
Additional digits (including zeros) should not be added (eg, after the decimal point) to provide all data entries with the same number of digits. Doing so may indicate more precise results than actually were calculated or measured. A percentage or decimal quotient should contain no more than the number of digits in the denominator. For example, the percentage for the proportion 9 of 28 should be reported as 32% (or decimal quotient 0.32), not 32.1% (or 0.321) (...

Organizing Information in Tables.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0130
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section
For a table to have maximum effectiveness, the information it contains must be arranged logically and clearly so that the reader can quickly understand the key point and find the specific data and comparisons of interest. During the planning and creation of a table, the author should consider the primary purpose of the table: what data need to be included, compared, or emphasized. ...

Photographs and Clinical Imaging.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0144
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section
Photographs and other images in biomedical articles are used to display clinical findings, experimental results, or clinical procedures. Such figures include radiographs (Figure 4.2-31) and those from other types of medical imaging (Figure 4.2-32 and Figure 4.2-33), photomicrographs (Figure 4.2-34...

Placement of Figures in the Text.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0147
Item type: 
section
In print/PDF versions of articles, figures should be placed as close as possible to their first mention in the text. Figures should be cited in consecutive numerical order in the text, and references to figures should include their respective numbers. For example: Patient participation and progress through the study are shown in Figure 1....

Punctuation.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0134
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section
As with numbers and abbreviations, rules for punctuation may be less restrictive in tables to save space (see 8.0, Punctuation). For example, virgules may be used to present dates (eg, 4/02/17 for April 2, 2017) and hyphens may be used to present ranges (eg, 60-90 for 60 to 90) (...

Sidebars.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0154
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section
Sidebars typically contain supplementary information, including related topics or lists of sources for further reading (Box 4.3-2 and Box 4.3-3). They are often not called out in the text (eg, “Box 1”) but instead are placed within the article in a logical place for best comprehension....

Statistical Graphs.  

Stacy Christiansen and Connie Manno

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0004.022.0140
Item type: 
section
Line graphs have 2 or 3 axes with continuous scales on which data points connected by curves show the association or relationship between 2 or more variables, such as changes over time. In general, line graphs are not ideal for displaying values where connection between points would imply continuity that may not be in evidence....

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