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Abbreviations.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0087
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Table 14.6-2 lists some common abbreviations from pulmonary function testing; they should always be expanded at first mention. Previous | Next

Apgar Score.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0078
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This score4 (pp594-595)- 7 is an assessment of a newborn’s physical well-being based on the 5 factors of heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color, each of which is rated 0, 1, or 2; the 5 ratings are then summed. The Apgar score is often reported as 2 numbers, from 0 to 10, separated by a virgule, reflecting assessment at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. In general medical journals, however, it is best to specify the intervals, especially because the Apgar score may be assessed at other intervals (eg, 10, 15, or 20 minutes)....

Bacteria: Additional Terminology.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0082
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For general guidelines on biological nomenclature that apply to bacteria, see 14.14.1, Biological Nomenclature. Rules for bacterial nomenclature are found in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. 8 Sources of bacterial names available on the web are the List of Prokaryotic Names With Standing in Nomenclature...

Bethesda System for Cervical Cytology.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0006
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The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology, dating to 1988, is a standardized, systematic means of reporting Papanicolaou test results.12 Resources are the published handbook (the “blue book”)12 and the website (https://bethesda.soc.wisc.edu).13 Expand the following abbreviations at first mention, and punctuate as shown (...

Biological Nomenclature.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0081
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Scientific names are short terms used in place of lengthy descriptions of species of animals, plants, and organisms. A scientific name is typically derived from Latin and corresponds to a set of formally defined attributes. The meanings of scientific names are internationally understood.1 In contrast, ...

Birth Weight.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0079
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Birth weight is defined as the weight of a neonate immediately after delivery. It should be expressed to the nearest gram.4 (p3), 5 (p499) Low birth weight: weight less than 2500 g Very low birth weight: weight less than 1500 g Extremely low birth weight: weight less than 1000 g...

Blood Groups.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0001
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Blood groups in humans are characterized by erythrocyte (red blood cell) antigens with common immunologic properties. Blood group systems are series of such antigens encoded by a single gene or by a cluster of 2 or 3 closely linked homologous genes.1 , 2 , 3 The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) recognizes 346 antigen specificities and 36 blood group systems....

Cancer Stage.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0004
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Cancer stages are expressed with the use of capital roman numerals, with higher numbers indicating increasing extent of disease: stage I stage II stage III stage IV The term “stage 0” usually indicates carcinoma in situ, with no spread of disease beyond the primary site....

Cardiology.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.021.0004
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Several areas of cardiology use simple letter terms and alphanumeric terms that do not need to be expanded at first mention. Previous | Next International standardization of electrocardiographic nomenclature dates back to the mid-20th century.1 , 2 , 3 , 4 The preferred abbreviation for electrocardiogram and electrocardiographic is ECG, not EKG. In the following examples of ECG terms, note the use of capitals, lowercase letters, subscripts, and hyphens....

CD Cell Markers.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0521
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CDs (clusters of differentiation) are a system for identifying cellular surface markers, a number of which define lymphocyte subsets (see 14.8.7, Nomenclature, Lymphocytes).7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 The system and its nomenclature were formalized in a 1982 international workshop. Originally, CD terms specified the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that clustered statistically in their reactivities to target cells. More recently, the CD terms apply to the cellular molecules themselves. The CDs, which now number nearly 400 (and may eventually number in the thousands...

Cellular and Molecular Cardiology.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0052
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These descriptive terms do not require expansion: Expand these terms at first mention:

Chemical Names.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0026
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The chemical name describes a drug in terms of its chemical structure.1 (pp15-16) Chemical names are provided in the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts (https://www.cas.org/) and can be listed in 1 of 2 ways; the first reflects the way in which Chemical Abstracts...

Chemokines.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0051
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Chemokines comprise a family of more than 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see 14.8.4, Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system and functions beyond it.1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 The name chemokine, a contraction of “chemotactic cytokine,” reflects the common property, by which they were originally identified, of promoting leukocyte chemotaxis....

Code Designations.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0027
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A code designation is a temporary designation assigned to a product by the institution or manufacturer and may be used to refer to a drug under development before a nonproprietary name has been assigned. Codes may be numeric, alphabetic, or alphanumeric; letters in alphanumeric codes designate the institution or manufacturer assigning the code designation of the drug and are followed by numbers to designate the chemical compound....

Combination Products.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0031
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For combination products (mixtures), the names of the active ingredients should be provided. The proprietary name of the combination may be given in parentheses if necessary to clarify the product to which the article refers. pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and triprolidine hydrochloride (Actifed) povidone and hydroxyethylcellulose (Adsorbotear)...

Complement.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0053
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The term complement refers to a group of serum proteins activated sequentially and rapidly in a cascade that produces molecules providing resistance to pathogens.15 The system was named in 1899 for its complementarity with antibodies in destroying microbes.15 Current nomenclature derives largely from the 1968 World Health Organization Bulletin “Nomenclature of Complement,”...

Coronary Artery Angiographic Classifications.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0020
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Guidelines are available for nomenclature of coronary artery segments,28 used in coronary artery catheterization and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow (TIMI flow). The TIMI flow is expressed as grade 0, grade 1, grade 2, or grade 3, from lowest flow (or severest lesion) to highest flow....

Cytokines.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0054
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Cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins produced after stimulation (such as activation of immune cells) that act at short distances in low concentrations to produce various effects, such as immune and inflammatory reactions, repair processes, and cell growth and differentiation.4 , 6 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22...

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0083
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The American Psychiatric Association has published 6 editions of a manual for the classification of mental disorders. Each edition has been titled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and has used the abbreviation DSM: DSM-I (1952) DSM-II (1968) DSM-III (1980) DSM-III-R (1987) DSM-IV (1994)...

Drug Abbreviations.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0034
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Some drugs have commonly used abbreviations, such as INH for isoniazid and TMP for trimethoprim. However, abbreviations may be used inconsistently, be confused with other terms, or be unfamiliar to some readers. Because of the potential for harm from erroneous interpretation of abbreviated drug names, abbreviations should not be used except in rare instances (eg, ...

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