Technical Questions

1. What are the technical requirements for using this website?

In order to access the website, you need a standard web browser, such as Internet Explorer 11 and Edge, Mozilla Firefox , Safari , or Chrome, with an internet connection, HTML and JavaScript support. Your operating system should be one of the following: Win XP; Win 7 and Win 10; MAC OS 10.X.

You will also need MS Office installed on your computer to be able to open images in PowerPoint files.

2. What if I have problems accessing the website?

Please do the following:

  •     Check that you are connected to the internet when you try to use the site
  •     Try going to another website. If you can't, your internet service may be experiencing problems.
  •     Check that you are typing your email and password correctly
  •     Check that you are using a recommended browser: Internet Explorer 11, Edge,  Mozilla, Firefox, Chrome or Safari.
  •     Check whether you are using a firewall

If you do use a firewall, add to your trusted sites, also known as your whitelist. If that does not work, deactivate the firewall and then try accessing again. If deactivating the firewall does work, remember to activate it again when you have finished using the website.

  • Check whether you are behind a proxy server
  • If you are, it may be blocking your access to Contact your system administrator and ask them to allow you access to the website.
  • Do you use security software? This may be blocking access to
  • Check whether you have cleared your cache recently

Your browser cache is a temporary storage area that holds web pages that you have looked at. Getting information from the cache is usually quicker for the browser than getting it from the internet. Such decisions are made in the background and you usually do not need to be involved. However, this can mean that you do not get the most recent version of a web page. If you are finding that the website is behaving strangely, you might find that the problem is fixed by clearing (or emptying) your cache.

3. Do I need JavaScript?

Yes. If you need to enable JavaScript, please bear in mind that the way to do this will be different for each browser.

4. What does the search function provide?

You can carry out basic search by using the search box provided in the upper right-hand corner of the website. For advanced search, please go to the Advanced search section: you can narrow your search by many different options, including by author (where relevant), chapter titles, full text and words within captions, specifying whether you are interested to see any or all words or phrases containing required terms.

Search results are displayed in groups of 10 per page by default. However, you can change this to 20, 50, or 100 results per page. When you want to access a specific search result listed on a page, please click on [Full Text] link to see the chapter or topic.

If you have any problems with search results you receive, please check the following:

  • If you searched for an author name using initials, try again using only the author's last name.
  • Truncate words using the asterisk (*) to find word variations: embryo* retrieves embryo, embryos, embryonic.
  • Pay particular attention to terms containing hyphens, periods, or other punctuation. Punctuation is ignored and letters or numbers separated by punctuation are treated as separate words: Search IL-4 with il-4 or il 4 (with a space), but not with il4 (without a space). Search mRNA with mrna, not with m-rna or m rna.
  • Avoid Greek letters, superscripts, subscripts, and other special characters.
  • To search for an author name containing special characters, use the wildcard "*" to truncate the author name before the special character. For example, to search for articles by "Stefan Grundström" you should search for "Grundstr*".
  • If you used parentheses, make sure that they are matched.

For additional information, please read the Help with Searching section.

5. What is your policy on third party data mining?

OUP recognizes the research benefit of Text and Data Mining (TDM) across a variety of research fields. As such, we are happy to accommodate TDM for non-commercial use. If you have any questions please e-mail


1. What accessibility standards does the site meet?

The following requirements have been implemented within the website to ensure compliance with Priority Levels 1 and 2 of the W3C accessibility guidelines:

  • Fonts can be resized on the screen
  • Colour does not convey any critical meaning
  • Content and structure are separated from presentation
  • Foreground has been differentiated from background for visual presentation
  • A logical reading order has been set
  • Content does not use any flashing text or graphics, or looped animations
  • Text has been formatted correctly (avoiding full justification)
  • Buttons are of sufficient size