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Lauren Fischer

and Paul Frank

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date: 24 October 2021

The References chapter of the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style contains detailed guidance on what should be included in a reference and how references should be styled and formatted. Sample references to both books and journals, in print and online, include formats for sometimes complex citations that include non-English words and phrases, names of organisms, discontinuous pagination, journals without volume or issue numbers, a special department of a journal, discussants, online comments, special collections, package inserts, patents, conference proceedings, personal communications, material submitted but not yet accepted or published, and transcripts. Many examples of how to cite social media and other electronic resources, including podcasts, apps and interactive games, preprints, databases, and data repositories, are included. New recommendations: a DOI should be included for journal references if available, and it is no longer necessary to include the publisher’s location in references to books.

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